Part One; Of Man; Chapter Nine; Of Subjects of Knowledge Of Leviathan


Part One; Of Man; Chapter Nine; Of Subjects of Knowledge Of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes

 

THERE are of are of knowledge two kinds, whereof one is knowledge of fact; the other, knowledge of the consequence of one affirmation to another. The former is nothing else but sense and memory, and is absolute knowledge; as when we see a fact doing, or remember it done; and this is the knowledge required in a witness. The latter is called science, and is conditional; as when we know that: if the figure shown be a circle, then any straight line through the center shall divide it into two equal parts. And this is the knowledge required in a philosopher; that is to say, of him that pretends to reasoning.

The register of knowledge of fact is called history, whereof there be two sorts: one called natural history; which is the history of such facts, or effects of Nature, as have no dependence on man’s will; such as are the histories of metals, plants, animals, regions, and the like. The other is civil history, which is the history of the voluntary actions of men in Commonwealths.

The registers of science are such books as contain the demonstrations of consequences of one affirmation to another; and are commonly called books of philosophy; whereof the sorts are many, according to the diversity of the matter; and may be divided in such manner as I have divided them in the following table.

I. SCIENCE, that is, knowledge of consequences; which is called also PHILOSOPHY
A. Consequences from accidents of bodies natural; which is called NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
1. Consequences from accidents common to all bodies natural; which are quantity, and motion.
a. Consequences from quantity, and motion indeterminate; which, being the principles or first foundation of
philosophy, is called philosophia prima PHILOSOPHIA PRIMA
B. Consequences from motion, and quantity determined
1) Consequences from quantity, and motion determined
a) By figure, By number
1] Mathematics,
GEOMETRY
ARITHMETIC
2) Consequences from motion, and quantity of bodies in special
a) Consequences from motion, and quantity of the great parts of the world, as the earth and stars,
1] Cosmography
ASTRONOMY
GEOGRAPHY
b) Consequences from motion of special kinds, and figures of body,
1] Mechanics, doctrine of weight; Science of ENGINEERS
ARCHITECTURE
NAVIGATION
2. PHYSICS, or consequences from qualities
a. Consequences from qualities of bodies transient, such as sometimes appear, sometimes vanish METEOROLOGY
b. Consequences from qualities of bodies permanent
1) Consequences from qualities of stars
a) Consequences from the light of the stars. Out of this, and the motion of the sun, is made the science of
SCIOGRAPHY
b) Consequences from the influence of the stars, ASTROLOGY
2) Consequences of qualities from liquid bodies that fill the space between the stars;

such as are the air, substance etherial
3) Consequences from qualities of bodies terrestrial
a) Consequences from parts of the earth that are without sense,
1] Consequences from qualities of minerals, as stones, metals, etc.
2] Consequences from the qualities of vegetables
b) Consequences from qualities of animals
1] Consequences from qualities of animals in general
a] Consequences from vision, OPTICS
b] Consequences from sounds, MUSIC
c] Consequences from the rest of the senses
2] Consequences from qualities of men in special
a] Consequences from passions of men, ETHICS
b] Consequences from speech,
i) In magnifying, vilifying, etc. POETRY
ii) In persuading, RHETORIC
iii) In reasoning, LOGIC
iv) In contracting, The Science of JUST and UNJUST
B. Consequences from accidents of politic bodies; which is called POLITICS, AND CIVIL PHILOSOPHY
1. Of consequences from the institution of COMMONWEALTHS, to the rights, and duties of the body politic, or sovereign
2. Of consequences from the same, to the duty and right of the subjects

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